Using selected examples from within the International Relations literature, this paper aims to provide a brief overview of the main principles and distinctive advantages and limitations of single case study analysis. Divided into three inter-related sections, the paper therefore begins by first identifying the underlying principles that serve to constitute the case study as a particular research strategy, noting the somewhat contested nature of the approach in ontological, epistemological, and methodological terms. The final section of the paper then discusses the most commonly articulated limitations of single case studies; while accepting their susceptibility to criticism, it is however suggested that such weaknesses are somewhat exaggerated. The paper concludes that single case study analysis has a great deal to offer as a means of both understanding and explaining contemporary international relations.
Many Countries Favor Specific Religions, Officially or Unofficially Islam is the most common state religion, but many governments give privileges to Christianity More than 80 countries favor a specific religion, either as an official, government-endorsed religion or by affording one religion preferential treatment over other faiths, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of data covering countries and territories around the world.
By comparison, just 13 countries including nine European nations designate Christianity or a particular Christian denomination as their state religion. But an additional 40 governments around the globe unofficially favor a particular religion, and in most cases the preferred faith is a branch of Christianity.
Indeed, Christian churches receive preferential treatment in more countries — 28 — than any other unofficial but favored faith. In some cases, state religions have roles that are largely ceremonial. But often the distinction comes with tangible advantages in terms of legal or tax status, ownership of real estate or other property, and access to financial support from the state.
In 10 countries, the state either tightly regulates all religious institutions or is actively hostile to religion in general. These countries include China, Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam and several former Soviet republics — places where government officials seek to control worship practices, public expressions of religion and political activity by religious groups.
Most governments around the globe, however, are generally neutral toward religion. More than countries and territories included in the study have no official or preferred religion as of These include countries like the United States that may give benefits or privileges to religious groups, but generally do so without systematically favoring a specific group over others.
States with an official religion confer official status on a particular religion in their constitution or basic law. These states do not necessarily provide benefits to that religious group over others.
But, in most cases, they do favor the state religion in some way. States with a preferred or favored religion have government policies or actions that clearly favor one or in some cases, more than one religion over others, typically with legal, financial or other kinds of practical benefits.
Some of these countries also call for freedom of religion in their constitutions — though, in practice, they do not treat all religions equally. States with no official or preferred religion seek to avoid giving tangible benefits to one religious group over others although they may evenhandedly provide benefits to many religious groups.
For example, the U. Many countries in this category have constitutional language calling for freedom of religion, although that language alone is not enough to include a country in this group; coders must determine that these countries do not systematically favor one or more religions over others.
States with a hostile relationship toward religion exert a very high level of control over religious institutions in their countries or actively take a combative position toward religion in general.
Some of these countries may have constitutions that proclaim freedom of religion, or leaders who describe themselves as adherents of a particular religion, such as Islam.
Nonetheless, their governments seek to tightly restrict the legal status, funding, clergy and political activity of religious groups. This research is part of a broader effort to understand restrictions on religion around the world.
For the past eight years, Pew Research Center has published annual reports analyzing the extent to which governments and societies around the world impinge on religious beliefs and practices. The studies are part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world.
The rest of this report looks in more detail at countries with official state religions or preferred religions, as well as those with no preferred religion and those that are highly restrictive or hostile toward religion.
It also explores the implications of these categories. In Afghanistan, for example, Islam is the official state religion, stated explicitly in the constitution: One example of a preferred religion is Buddhism in Laos, where the constitution does not explicitly name Buddhism as an official state religion, but says: Buddhism also is exempted from some restrictions that apply to other religious groups.
For example, the government allows the printing, import and distribution of Buddhist religious material while restricting the publication of religious materials for most other religious groups. The four traditional religions are given certain benefits: Students choosing to take a religious education course may choose between courses on the four traditional religions or a general course on world religions, and a government program funding military chaplains is restricted to chaplains of these four religions.
Within their borders, these countries treat different religions e. Broadly, the countries in this category can be said to maintain a clear separation of church and state. But it is not necessarily the case that these countries avoid any promotion or restriction of religious practice.
China, for example, does not have an official state religion, nor does it have a preferred religion. Nor does it have a preferred or favored religion.Scope. National accounts broadly present output, expenditure, and income activities of the economic actors (households, corporations, government) in an economy, including their relations with other countries' economies, and their wealth (net worth).
Aug 18, · You have pointed out lots of advantages and disadvantages of case studies, there are also ethical issues, observations and interviews are typically used in case study research to gather data, so the ethical issues are broadly the same (e.g.
privacy, consent, risk of harm, etc). Executive Summary This guide to using qualitative research methodology is designed to help you think about all the steps you need to take to ensure that you produce a.
John Gerring's exceptional textbook has been thoroughly revised in this second edition. It offers a one-volume introduction to social science methodology relevant to the disciplines of anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology and sociology.
Case study research is the most popular research method for researchers in industrial marketing. However despite a number of attempts the problem of satisfactorily justifying the use of case research remains.
Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 21 – January The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research. Florian Kohlbacher. Abstract: This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research.
First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly.